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ERIC Number: ED040378
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1969
Pages: 61
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
English Literacy: Legal Sanction for Discrimination.
Leibowitz, Arnold H.
Notre Dame Lawyer, v45 n1 p7-67 Fall 1969
The thesis of this article is that, in general, English literacy tests and other statutory sanctions applied in favor of English were originally formulated as an indirect but effective means of achieving discrimination on the basis of race, creed, or color. Many such provisions in the law are anachronistic, having only historical interest today, while others retain their vigor and continue to operate in a discriminatory manner. A few contribute to the "official" character that English enjoys in our society or to the health and safety of the operation of certain institutions. These have continuing legal and political validity. (Discussed in detail are English literacy requirements in the light of state regulation, number of people affected, federal regulation, and early federal practice; English literacy as a condition of voting; English literacy as a condition of business activity; English literacy in legal proceedings, English as the exclusive language of the American school system; and the special case of Puerto Rico. Appended are notes on U.S. statutory and constitutional requirements concerning English in each state.) (Author/AMM)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: N/A