ERIC Number: ED039181
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1970
Reference Count: 0
An Investigation of the Effects of the Application and Removal of a Token Economy on the Working Behavior of Sixteen Headstart Children.
Wrobel, Patricia; Resnick, Lauren B.
A study was conducted to assess the effect of token reinforcement for work behavior in a Headstart classroom and to investigate methods of withdrawing tokens while still maintaining the behavior. The class was treated as a whole and decisions to change from one condition to another were based on the group mean. The study was divided into two phases. In phase 1 a reversal design was employed. After a baseline period with no tokens, tokens were introduced, then removed, and then reintroduced. Results showed an increase in work behavior for the class as a whole during both token periods as compared with baseline and reversal periods. However, under these conditions several distinct individual response patterns to tokens occurred. In phase 2 check marks were substituted for tokens. Work behavior was maintained for all subjects. The study demonstrates that tokens can be effectively employed to increase work behavior in a preschool classroom and that individual children respond differently to institution and removal of tokens. Owing to the various individual response patterns that occurred under the token system, this study suggests new experimental strategies for applying token systems in classrooms. (The report contains 11 pages of graphs) (Author/RT)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: General Learning Corp., Washington, DC.; Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Learning Research and Development Center.
Note: Paper presented at annual meeting, AERA, Minneapolis, 1970