ERIC Number: ED035141
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1967
Reference Count: 0
Structured Exchange and Childhood Learning: Ghetto Children. Program Activity 12.
Hamblin, Robert L.; Buckholdt, David
Program descriptions are introduced by theories of the reasons for the apparent low IQ of many black ghetto children. The theories are the genetic, the stimulus deprivation, the expectation, and the learning-exchange theory. Five experiments with ghetto underachievers are described. The first was designed to use token exchange in a remedial class with good work completion resulting from the top two-thirds of the class of 33. The second experimental group showed marked improvement in a delayed exchange, after-school program. Social communication and increased verbalization resulted in experiment three with continuous token exchange being utilized with four non-verbal children. Student-peer tutoring in the fourth coupled with immediate exchange produced good improvement, and the entire group showed marked improvement in reading ability and IQ at the end of the full year program (experiment five). A case study and tables of results are included. (JM)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Behavior Change, Behavior Theories, Black Students, Case Studies, Disadvantaged Youth, Educational Methods, Exceptional Child Research, Ghettos, Individual Development, Low Achievement, Peer Teaching, Program Evaluation, Reinforcement, Student Improvement, Teacher Role, Verbal Development
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: CEMREL, Inc., St. Ann, MO.