ERIC Number: ED025892
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1968-Aug-31
Reference Count: 0
The Effects of Individualized Versus Group Oriented Physical Education Programs on Selected Parameters of Development of Educable Mentally Retarded and Minimally Brain Injured Children. Final Report.
Rarick, G. Lawrence; Broadhead, Geoffrey A.
The investigation examined the role of physical activity programs in the modification of the motor, intellectual, social, and emotional development of educable mentally retarded children and minimally brain injured children. Forty nine classes of children (275 educable mentally retarded and 206 minimally brain injured) participated in 20 weeks of instructional programs. Classes were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two were physical education programs (one individually oriented, the other group oriented); one was an art program (Hawthorne effect); the fourth, a control (usual program). A battery of 32 tests was administered prior to and at the end of the experiment. Children in the special experimental programs elicited greater positive changes in their motor, intellectual, and emotional behavior than those in the control program. Of the special programs, the physical education programs were superior in modifying motor performance, the art program in altering emotional behavior, and neither was superior in modifying intellectual behavior. The individually oriented physical education program elicited greater gains than the group oriented program in measures of motor, intellectual, and emotional behavior. Positive behavior changes occurred more frequently in the older than younger, more often in the brain injured than the retarded, and more frequently in the boys than the girls. (Author)
Descriptors: Age Differences, Art, Behavior Change, Elementary School Students, Emotional Development, Exceptional Child Research, Group Instruction, Individualized Instruction, Intellectual Development, Learning Disabilities, Mental Retardation, Mild Mental Retardation, Minimal Brain Dysfunction, Motor Development, Physical Activities, Physical Education, Sex Differences, Social Development
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.; Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Physical Education.