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ERIC Number: ED019802
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1967-Dec
Pages: 45
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
CONDITIONING CHILDREN FOR SCHOOL. FINAL REPORT.
PRINCE, ALBERT I.
A SET OF BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES USED IN INTELLECTUAL REHABILITATION OF A SMALL GROUP OF THIRD GRADERS WITH EDUCATIONAL AND RELATED BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS WAS EVALUATED. SUBJECTS SELECTED WERE EIGHT THIRD-GRADE STUDENTS AGED 8 TO 10, WHO WERE 1 YEAR BEHIND IN READING AS MEASURED BY A STANDARDIZED ACHIEVEMENT TEST AND 1 YEAR BEHIND IN EITHER SPELLING OR MATHEMATICS AS MEASURED BY THE SAME TEST. THEIR VISION AND HEARING WERE ESSENTIALLY NORMAL. SUBJECTS PARTICIPATED FOR 8 WEEKS IN BOTH EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL CONDITIONS BY WORKING IN MATCHED PAIRS IN EITHER CONDITION IN ONE OR TWO AREAS. IN ALL THREE AREAS, THE PROCEDURES INVOLVED A PRETRAINING PERIOD WITH EASY REWARDS AND A MORE DIFFICULT TRAINING PERIOD. AT FIRST, REINFORCEMENT WAS KEPT IN VIEW, GIVEN IMMEDIATELY, AND USED TO DIFFERENTIATE THE EXPERIMENTER FROM OTHER ADULTS WITH WHOM THE STUDENTS HAD HAD UNFORTUNATE EXPERIENCES. CORRECTION AND EXPLANATION WERE GIVEN. THE MATERIALS WERE PROGRAMED ON MATCH-TO-SAMPLE SLIDES, AND THE CHILDREN RESPONDED BY PUSHING THE APPROPRIATE BUTTON. IN THE 5TH, 6TH, OR 7TH WEEK, THE REWARDS WERE CHANGED FROM MONETARY TO SOCIAL ONES. THE REWARD SCHEDULE AND SPEED OF PRESENTATION WERE ALSO MANIPULATED. MATERIAL WAS KEPT (ESPECIALLY IN THE INITIAL STAGES) AT A LEVEL NEITHER TOO DIFFICULT NOR TOO EASY. IN THE MATHEMATICS PROGRAM, STUDENTS WERE GIVEN BOTH A DIFFICULT AND MIXED-DIFFICULTY SERIES. READING AND SPELLING TRAINING WERE WITH 2,021 WORDS FROM THORNDIKE WORD LIST. MATHEMATICS TRAINING, BECAUSE OF THE UNEXPECTEDLY FAST LEARNING RATE, WAS CHANGED FROM 2,000 TO 4,000 PROBLEMS. OF THREE SOMATIC MEASURES TAKEN THROUGHOUT TRAINING, ONLY TEMPERATURE WAS OBSERVED TO HAVE AN EFFECT UPON PERFORMANCE. RESULTS INDICATED THAT EXPERIMENTAL STUDENTS GENERALLY IMPROVED MORE THAN DID THE CONTROLS. GRADE CHANGES WERE NOTED IN ALL AREAS (BEST IN SPELLING) FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL SUBJECTS, AND TEACHER RATINGS WERE HIGHER FOR THEM (SIGNIFICANT AT THE .014 LEVEL ONLY IN SPELLING). LEARNING DID NOT APPEAR TO BE MARKEDLY AFFECTED BY CHANGES IN TYPE OR SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT. POSTTESTS AFTER 4 MONTHS REVEALED RETENTION BEST IN MATHEMATICS. APPENDIXES CONTAIN THE PRETRAINING MATHEMATICS SEQUENCE, A LIST OF WORDS WITH SEMANTIC ASSOCIATION INDEX, AND A SAMPLE OF PROGRAMED SPELLING WORDS. (JD)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Evansville Coll., IN.
Identifiers: N/A