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ERIC Number: ED019787
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1966
Pages: 53
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
EFFECTS OF REWARD AND PUNISHMENT ON STUTTERING IN CHILDREN.
JENSEN, PAUL J.
THE STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT THERE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER LATENCY AND RESPONSE DURATIONS IN CHILDREN'S SPEECH AS A RESULT OF VERBAL PUNISHMENT COMPARED TO REWARD, AND WHETHER THE EFFECTS ARE GREATER IN YOUNGER OR OLDER CHILDREN AND IN BOYS OR GIRLS. SUBJECTS WERE 160 BOYS AND GIRLS FROM THIRD AND SIXTH GRADES. DURING A CONTROL PERIOD SUBJECTS REPEATED TRISYLLABLE NONSENSE WORDS PRODUCED BY A RECORDED VOICE. DURING THE DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT PERIOD, SUBJECTS AGAIN REPEATED THE NONSENSE WORDS. GROUP A RECEIVED POSITIVE VERBAL REINFORCEMENT, AND GROUP B RECEIVED NEGATIVE VERBAL REINFORCEMENT. DEPENDENT VARIABLES WERE LATENCY DURATION (TIME FROM THE END OF AN AUDITORY STIMULUS TO THE BEGINNING OF SUBJECT'S RESPONSE) AND RESPONSE DURATION (TIME FROM BEGINNING TO END OF A SUBJECT'S RESPONSE). INDEPENDENT VARIABLES WERE PERIOD (CONTROL AND EFFORT), CONDITION (REWARD AND PUNISHMENT), GRADE (THIRD AND SIXTH), AND SEX (FEMALE AND MALE). ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE AND COVARIANCE WERE USED TO EVALUATE THE DATA AND REVEALED EVIDENCE OF HETEROGENEITY OF VARIANCE SO THAT FINDINGS MAY NOT BE ASSUMED TO BE RELATED ONLY TO TREATMENT LEVELS OR MEANS. CONCLUSIONS WERE (1) INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS EXISTING AMONG CHILDREN NEED TO BE ISOLATED FOR MAXIMUM UNDERSTANDING OF DISFLUENCY, (2) THE GENERAL TENDENCY IN THE LITERATURE TO INTERPRET ADULT FINDINGS AS APPLICABLE TO CHILDREN MAY BE UNWARRANTED, (3) LATENCY APPEARS UNRELATED TO REWARD AND PUNISHMENT FOR BOYS AND GIRLS IN THIRD AND SIXTH GRADES, (4) THIRD GRADE CHILDREN HAVE MORE DISFLUENCY (AS MEASURED BY RESPONSE DURATION) THAN SIXTH GRADE CHILDREN IN THIS SITUATION, BUT NOT NECESSARILY AS A RESULT OF PUNISHMENT, (5) GENERALLY, VERBAL PUNISHMENT WAS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGER UTTERANCE THAN VERBAL REWARD, AND (6) GIRLS HAD SHORTER RESPONSES WHEN REWARDED AND LONGER RESPONSES WHEN PUNISHED AS COMPARED TO MALES WHO SHOWED NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONDITIONS. A REFERENCE LIST CITES 25 ITEMS. (MY)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Florida Univ., Gainesville. Communication Sciences Lab.
Identifiers: N/A