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ERIC Number: ED019665
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1964-May
Pages: 51
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
ON THE LITERARY LANGUAGE IN CHINA AND JAPAN. PRELIMINARY TRANSLATIONS OF SELECTED WORKS IN SOCIOLINGUISTICS, NUMBER V.
KONRAD, N.I.
ORIENTALISTS HAVE OBSERVED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL "STANDARD" LANGUAGES OF CHINA AND JAPAN AS A GRADUAL REPLACEMENT OF THE OLD "WRITTEN-LITERARY" LANGUAGE BY THE "COLLOQUIAL" SPOKEN LANGUAGE. THE AUTHOR DEFINES "WRITTEN-LITERARY" LANGUAGE, CORRESPONDING TO "WEN-YEN" IN CHINESE AND "BUNGO" IN JAPANESE, AS BEING ANALOGOUS TO THE LATIN "LITTERAE" WHICH MEANS BOTH "LITERATURE" AND "LETTERS." THIS IS IN OPPOSITION TO "SPOKEN" OR "COLLOQUIAL" LANGUAGE (CORRESPONDING TO "PAI-HUA" IN CHINESE AND "KOGO" IN JAPANESE), WHICH IS DEFINED AS THAT LANGUAGE UNDERSTOOD BY THE LARGEST NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN A COUNTRY. IN JAPAN, THIS IS THE TOKYO REGION DIALECT, AND IN CHINA, THE PEKING REGION DIALECT. THAT THESE "COMMON" OR "PLAIN" DIALECTS SHOULD HAVE THUS CRYSTALLIZED RESULTS FROM REPRESENTATIVES OF LOCAL DIALECTS COMING TOGETHER IN COMMON ACTIVITIES--TOKYO AND PEKING BEING THE LARGEST POLITICAL, ECONOMICAL, AND CULTURAL CENTERS IN THEIR RESPECTIVE COUNTRIES. A MOVEMENT FOR THE FORMATION OF A NEW LITERARY LANGUAGE BASED UPON COLLOQUIAL SPEECH BEGAN IN JAPAN IN THE 1870'S AND 1880'S AND IS KNOWN AS THE "GEMBUN-ITCHI" OR "UNITY OF WORD AND WRITING" MOVEMENT. A SIMILAR MOVEMENT IN CHINA, "WEN-HSUEH KO-MING" OR "LITERARY REVOLUTION," MAY BE SAID TO HAVE BEGUN IN EARNEST IN 1919. THESE LITERARY MOVEMENTS WERE CLOSELY AFFECTED BY SOCIO-POLITICAL CHANGES AND THE USE OF REALISM, IN THE COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE, BY CONTEMPORARY WRITERS. THE AUTHOR DESCRIBES THE HISTORIES OF THE TWO LITERARY LANGUAGES AND POINTS OUT THAT THE PATHS TO THE ADOPTION OF NATIONAL LITERARY LANGUAGES IN CHINA AND JAPAN ARE DIFFERENT BUT "THE STUDENT OF THE WRITTEN-LITERARY LANGUAGES OF BOTH COUNTRIES HAS ALWAYS ASSOCIATED THE WRITTEN-LITERARY LANGUAGES WITH EVERYTHING OLD AND EVERYTHING HINDERING SOCIAL AND CULTURAL PROGRESS." THE DISCUSSION PRESENTED PLACES EMPHASIS ON SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTORS RATHER THAN ON THE LINGUISTIC CHANGES. THIS STUDY, TRANSLATED BY PHILIP DORFF OF THE CENTER FOR APPLIED LINGUISTICS AND EDITED FOR CONTENT BY SAMUEL MARTIN OF YALE UNIVERSITY, ORIGINALLY APPEARED IN "VOPROSY FORMIROVANIJA I RAZVITIJA NACIONAL'NYX JAZYKOV," M.M. GUXMAN, EDITOR, MOSCOW, 1960. (AMM)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.
Identifiers: China (Peking); Japan (Tokyo)