NotesFAQContact Us
Collection
Advanced
Search Tips
ERIC Number: ED016515
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: N/A
Pages: 6
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
POSITIVE SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT IN THE NURSERY SCHOOL PEER GROUP.
CHARLESWORTH, ROSALIND; HARTUP, WILLARD W.
FOR 5 WEEKS, 2 OBSERVERS MADE DAILY VISITS TO A LABORATORY PRESCHOOL TO COLLECT INFORMATION ON THE AMOUNT AND KINDS OF POSITIVE SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT CHILDREN GIVE TO EACH OTHER IN NURSERY SCHOOL. SEVENTY CHILDREN (AGED 3 YEARS 4 MONTHS TO 4 YEARS 9 MONTHS) WERE GROUPED INTO 2 OLDER AND 2 YOUNGER CLASSES. EACH CHILD WAS OBSERVED IN RANDOM ORDER FOR 3-MINUTE PERIODS AT 12 DIFFERENT TIMES. OBSERVATIONS WERE RECORDED IN PRESET PROTOCOLS CODED IN 4 CATEGORIES ACCORDING TO KINDS OF REINFORCEMENT, (1) GIVING POSITIVE ATTENTION AND APPROVAL, (2) GIVING AFFECTION AND PERSONAL ACCEPTANCE, (3) SUBMISSION, AND (4) TOKEN GIVING. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE DATA SHOWED THAT 4-YEAR-OLDS HAD A SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER RATE OF POSITIVE SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT IN A WIDER DISTRIBUTION THAN DID 3-YEAR-OLDS. REINFORCEMENT OVERTURES OCCURRED MOST FREQUENTLY DURING SUCH DRAMATIC PLAY ACTIVITIES AS PLAYING HOUSE OR PLAYING WITH BLOCKS, TRUCKS, AND PUPPETS. SUPPORT GIVEN RELATED POSITIVELY TO THE AMOUNT RECEIVED AND USUALLY SUSTAINED ONGOING BEHAVIOR. INVESTIGATORS CONCLUDED THAT THERE IS A MARKED INCREASE IN A CHILD'S USE OF GENERALIZED SOCIAL REINFORCERS DURING PRESCHOOL YEARS AND THAT A WIDE VARIETY OF POSITIVE RESPONSES ARE USED. THIS ARTICLE IS PUBLISHED IN "CHILD DEVELOPMENT," VOLUME 38, NUMBER 4, DECEMBER, 1967. (MS)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: Skinner (B F)