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ERIC Number: ED016350
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1966-Dec
Pages: 21
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY TRAINING WITH EDUCABLE RETARDED AND BRIGHT NORMAL CHILDREN OF THE SAME MENTAL AGE.
CORTER, HAROLD M.; MCKINNEY, JAMES D.
THE MAJOR PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP A COGNITIVE TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGNED TO INCREASE MENTALLY RETARDED AND NORMAL SUBJECTS' PERFORMANCES ON FLEXIBILITY-TYPE TASKS AND GENERAL INTELLIGENCE TESTS. A TEST BATTERY OF FIVE TESTS (STENCIL DESIGN, EMBEDDED FIGURES, PICTURE ANOMALIES, OBJECT SORTING, AND TELL ABOUT THIS), DESIGNED TO MEASURE COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY (CF), AND THE STANFORD-BINET INTELLIGENCE SCALE (SB), FORM L-M, WERE ADMINISTERED TO 32 EDUCABLE RETARDED AND 32 NORMAL CHILDREN IN SPECIAL EDUCATION CLASSES AND KINDERGARTEN. TWO CLASSES OF EACH GROUP OF CHILDREN WERE USED AND WERE MATCHED ON MENTAL AGE AND SEX. THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS RECEIVED CF TRAINING IN 30 TO 45 MINUTE SESSIONS FOR 20 DAYS. EXERCISES PROVIDED PRACTICE IN SHIFTING FOR THREE GENERAL AREAS OF TRAINING--PERCEPTUAL, CONCEPTUAL, AND SPONTANEOUS FLEXIBILITY. AT THE END OF THIS TIME ALL SUBJECTS WERE RETESTED. RESULTS INDICATED THAT THE MEAN DIFFERENCE IN THE PRETEST CF TOTAL SCORES BETWEEN THE RETARDED AND NORMAL GROUPS WAS SIGNIFICANT AT THE .05 LEVEL, SHOWING A DIFFERENCE IN INITIAL FLEXIBILITY FAVORING THE NORMAL GROUP. THE MEAN CHANGE IN CF TOTAL SCORE FOR BOTH EXPERIMENTAL RETARDED AND NORMAL GROUPS WAS HIGHLY SIGNIFICANT (P IS LESS THAN .001). THE MEAN CHANGE IN CF TOTAL SCORE WAS NOT SIGNIFICANT FOR THE RETARDED CONTROL GROUP BUT WAS SIGNIFICANT FOR THE NORMAL CONTROL GROUP AT THE .001 LEVEL. AN ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF IMPROVEMENT IN CF TOTAL SCORES SHOWS THE F-RATIO FOR TREATMENT EFFECTS HIGHLY SIGNIFICANT (P IS LESS THAN .0005). THE MEAN INCREASE IN IQ FOR THE RETARDED EXPERIMENTAL GROUP WAS SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM ZERO AT THE .001 LEVEL, WHILE THAT FOR THE NORMAL EXPERIMENTAL GROUP WAS SIGNIFICANT AT THE .01 LEVEL. NEITHER MEAN DIFFERENCE FOR THE CONTROL GROUPS APPROACHED SIGNIFICANCE AT THE .05 LEVEL. THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGE IN IQ SHOWS THE TREATMENT EFFECTS WERE SIGNIFICANT AT .01 LEVEL. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT THE TRAINING PROGRAM WAS EFFECTIVE IN PRODUCING SIGNIFICANT INCREASES IN COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY AND IN IQ. SEVERAL LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ARE NOTED. FIVE TABLES AND A REFERENCE LIST OF 23 ITEMS ARE INCLUDED. (RS)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: N/A