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ERIC Number: ED015971
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1967-Nov
Pages: 30
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
LEGAL ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN SOLUTIONS FOR PROBLEMS OF RACIAL ISOLATION.
PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES HAVE BEEN ORGANIZED IN DIFFERENT WAYS, BOTH WITHIN THE STATES AND FROM STATE TO STATE. IN SOME CASES SCHOOL DISTRICT STRUCTURE IS COTERMINOUS WITH LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL UNITS AND IS "DEPENDENT" ON THEM. HOWEVER, 78 PERCENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENTS ARE IN "INDEPENDENT" SCHOOL DISTRICTS WHOSE BOUNDARIES ARE DIFFERENT FROM THE GOVERNMENT UNITS. THE RECENT TREND TOWARD REORGANIZATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF INDIVIDUAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS HAS PRIMARILY AFFECTED RURAL AREAS, BUT SOME LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS HAVE ALSO REDUCED THE NUMBER OF LOCAL SCHOOL SYSTEMS. REORGANIZATION METHODS HAVE BEEN CONTROLLED BY THE TYPE OF LEGISLATION APPROVED BY THE STATE LEGISLATURES, WHICH MAY BE MANDATORY, PERMISSIVE, OR SEMIPERMISSIVE. ONE IMPORTANT DETERMINANT OF REORGANIZATION IS THE NATURE OF THE FINANCING IN THE SCHOOL DISTRICT, WHICH MAY OPERATE TO EITHER ENCOURAGE OR DISCOURAGE CONSOLIDATION. STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS ALSO AFFECT LOCAL EFFORTS TO REORGANIZE BECAUSE CONTIGUOUS LOCALITIES MAY HAVE VARYING TAX BASES AND DEBT LIMITS. CONSOLIDATION METHODS INCLUDE MERGERS OF CENTRAL CITY AND SUBURBAN SCHOOL SYSTEM, ANNEXATION BY CITIES OF OUTLYING AREAS, AND EXTENSION OF CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT BOUNDARIES WITHOUT CHANGING GOVERNMENTAL JURISDICTIONS. AN APPENDIX CONTAINS LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS FOR REORGANIZATION IN CALIFORNIA, ILLINOIS, INDIANA, MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, AND PENNSYLVANIA. THIS PAPER WAS PREPARED FOR THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY IN AMERICA'S CITIES, SPONSORED BY THE U.S. COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS, WASHINGTON, D.C., NOVEMBER 16-18, 1967. (NH)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: CALIFORNIA; ILLINOIS; INDIANA; MICHIGAN; NEW YORK; PENNSYLVANIA