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ERIC Number: ED014193
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1967-Mar
Pages: 85
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
PROGRAMMED LEARNING MATERIALS FOR THE BLIND.
MALLINSON, GEORGE G.
THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED AS A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF USING PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS WITH BLIND STUDENTS. FOUR TYPES OF STIMULUS-REPONSE MODES FOR PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION WERE DEVELOPED--AUDIO STIMULUS-AUDIO RESPONSE, AUDIO STIMULUS-BRAILLE RESPONSE, BRAILLE STIMULUS-AUDIO RESPONSE, BRAILLE STIMULUS-BRAILLE RESPONSE. A PILOT TESTING PROGRAM REVEALED THE BRAILLE STIMULUS-BRAILLE RESPONSE MODE WAS MOST APPROPRIATE. TESTS DETERMINED THAT THE MOST EFFICIENT BRAILLE STIMULUS-BRAILLE RESPONSE FORMAT WAS A BOOKLET IN WHICH THE BRAILLE FRAME APPEARED ON ONE PAGE AND THE CORRECT RESPONSE ON THE NEXT. THE STUDENT RESPONDED WITH A BRAILLE WRITER OR BRAILLE SLATE AND STYLUS. COMMERCIALLY DEVELOPED PROGRAMS FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE WERE MODIFIED FOR USE WITH BLIND STUDENTS. TWO 50 FRAME PROGRAMS REPRODUCED IN BRAILLE WERE TESTED WITH 57 BLIND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. RESULTS SHOWED THEY COULD HANDLE THESE PROGRAMED MATERIALS IN A REASONABLE AMOUNT OF TIME AND WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF ACCURACY. INSTRUCTIONS WERE FOLLOWED WITH MINIMAL DIFFICULTY. PERFORMANCE IMPROVED WITH SECOND BOOK. IN MODIFYING THE PROGRAM FOR USE WITH THE BLIND, 32 SYMBOLS WERE DEVELOPED FOR THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED SCIENCE TERMS IN ORDER TO REDUCE THE BULK OF BRAILLE MATERIALS. TO DETERMINE WHETHER BLIND STUDENTS COULD DISCRIMINATE AMONG THE SYMBOLS AND BETWEEN THE SYMBOLS AND BRAILLE, 43 BLIND STUDENTS (GRADES SIX TO TEN) WERE GIVEN TESTS IN THE FORM OF CHECKERS AND CHECKERBOARDS WHICH CONTAINED THE VARIOUS SPECIAL SCIENCE SYMBOLS. STUDENT SCORES IMPROVED AS IQ ROSE, JUNIOR HIGH STUDENTS SCORED BETTER THAN SIXTH GRADERS AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS REACTED NEGATIVELY AND DID NOT DO WELL. ON SECOND TRIALS STUDENTS REQUIRED LESS TIME AND SCORED FEWER ERRORS. THE APPENDIXES CONTAIN SAMPLE SCIENCE PROGRAMS ON "PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES,""SYMBOLS AND FORMULAE," AND "THE PLASTIDS." (TM)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo.
Identifiers: N/A