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ERIC Number: ED013985
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1967
Pages: 17
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR IV--ROBERT W. WHITE.
MCGUIRE, CARSON; ROWLAND, THOMAS
THE AUTHORS REVIEW THE THEORY OF MOTIVATION PRESENTED BY ROBERT W. WHITE IN HIS BOOK "LIVES IN PROGRESS" (1952) AND IN AN ARTICLE "MOTIVATION RECONSIDERED--THE CONCEPT OF COMPETENCE" (1959). WHITE PROPOSES THE CONCEPT OF "COMPETENCE" TO ACCOUNT FOR THOSE THINGS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR LEFT UNEXPLAINED BY OTHER THEORIES OF MOTIVATION. COMPETENCE IS USED TO REFER TO AN ORGANISM'S CAPACITY TO INTERACT EFFECTIVELY WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT. WHITE CONTENDS THAT COMPETENCE IS THE RESULT OF GRADUAL LEARNING BY ORGANISM-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION. COMPETENCE MOTIVATION, CALLED "EFFECTANCE" BY WHITE, IS DESCRIBED AS DIRECTED, SELECTIVE, AND PERSISTENT BECAUSE IT SATISFIES AN INTRINSIC NEED TO COPE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE MOTIVATION THEORIES OF HULL, SPENCE, PAVLOV, AND BERLYNE ARE ALSO REVIEWED BRIEFLY IN RELATION TO WHITE'S THEORY. THE AUTHORS CONCLUDE THAT WHITE'S THEORY OF COMPETENCE AND COMPETENCE MOTIVATION IS NECESSARY TO PROVIDE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR. THEY CONSIDER IT TO BE ESPECIALLY VALUABLE AS AN EXPLANATION OF THE EFFORTS OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADOLESCENTS IN LEARNING TO COPE AND COME TO APPROPRIATE TERMS WITH THEIR ENVIRONMENT. IN THIS CONTEXT, THE AUTHORS REGARD INTELLIGENCE TO BE THE ABILITY TO ADAPT TO AN INCREASINGLY COMPLEX AND SOPHISTICATED ENVIRONMENT. TWO CASE STUDIES ARE PRESENTED TO SUPPORT THE AUTHORS' CONTENTIONS OF THE APPLICABILITY OF WHITE'S THEORY TO THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS. (AL)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: N/A