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ERIC Number: ED012862
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1967-Mar
Pages: 35
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
SYMPOSIUM PAPERS OF THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, GOAL-DIRECTED LEADERSHIP--SUPERORDINATE TO HUMAN RELATIONS (74TH, NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 1966).
OLMSTEAD, JOSEPH A.; AND OTHERS
EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATIONS MUST BE GOAL-ORIENTED. HIGH-LEVEL LEADERSHIP MUST DEFINE ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS AND CHANNEL ACTIVITIES TO ACHIEVE THESE GOALS. STUDIES WERE MADE BY HUMRRO IN MILITARY LEADERSHIP AND SMALL GROUP EFFECTIVENESS. IT WAS FOUND THAT POTENTIAL SQUAD LEADERS, SELECTED FOR ABOVE-AVERAGE INTELLIGENCE AND RATED BY PEERS AND COMPANY COMMANDERS, COULD BE TRAINED TO PERFORM AS LEADERS, BUT NOT MUCH COULD BE DONE ABOUT THEIR HUMAN RELATIONS. IN A STUDY TO IMPROVE RIFLE SQUAD AND PLATOON TRAINING, REQUIREMENTS FOR INTERPERSONAL COORDINATION SIMILAR TO THOSE IN COMBAT WERE INTRODUCED. GROUP TASKS TENDED TO DETERMINE GROUP STRUCTURE AND THE RIGIDITY OR FLEXIBILITY OF THE GROUP INFLUENCED COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS. IN CREW TASKS, WHERE MEN WORKED CLOSELY TOGETHER, THE ENVIRONMENT (DEMANDS OF THE MACHINE) PROVIDED FEEDBACK AND THUS FUNCTIONED AS A LEADER. IN TEAMS, SUCH AS RIFLE SQUADS, WHERE MEN WERE IN LOOSE CONTACT WITH EACH OTHER, TRAINING HAD TO BE GIVEN IN ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENT AND ASSUMING LEADERSHIP WHEN NECESSARY. IN GROUPS WITH GOALS IMPOSED FROM ABOVE AND WITH AN APPOINTED LEADER (SUCH AS PLATOONS), LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR INVOLVED INITIATING STRUCTURE AND PROVIDING FEEDBACK, WITH LITTLE EMPHASIS ON CONSIDERATION FOR OTHERS. IT SEEMS, THEN, THAT IN LEADERSHIP TRAINING, ONE MUST STUDY THE ENVIRONMENT AND DESIGN THE TRAINING TO FIT IT. (EB)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: George Washington Univ., Alexandria, VA. Human Resources Research Office.
Identifiers: N/A