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ERIC Number: ED012803
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1964-Sep
Pages: 395
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
REINFORCEMENT IN CLASSROOM LEARNING. PART II, STUDIES OF REINFORCEMENT IN SIMULATED CLASSROOM SITUATIONS. PART III, IDENTIFICATION OF REINFORCERS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR.
TRAVERS, ROBERT M.W.; AND OTHERS
REINFORCEMENT CONCEPTS DERIVED LARGELY FROM RESEARCH OF SUBHUMAN SUBJECTS WERE TESTED FOR APPLICABILITY TO HUMAN-LEARNING SITUATIONS SIMILAR TO THOSE THAT OCCUR IN SCHOOLS. A SERIES OF EXPLORATORY STUDIES CONDUCTED IS DESCRIBED IN PART II OF THIS REPORT. IN PART III, TWO EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE REINFORCING VALUE OF DIFFERENT STIMULI ARE REPORTED. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WERE THE SUBJECTS OF ALL OF THESE STUDIES AND EXPERIMENTS. THE EXPERIMENTS REPORTED IN PART II DEALT WITH THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS--(1) A COMPARISON OF LEARNING UNDER DIRECT REINFORCEMENT WITH LEARNING UNDER VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT, (2) LEARNING AS A CONSEQUENCE OF THE LEARNER'S TASK INVOLVEMENT UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS OF FEEDBACK, (3) THE RELATIONSHIP OF LEARNING TO ATTENTION IN A SIMULATED CLASSROOM SITUATION, (4) THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUPILS AS REINFORCING AGENTS, (5) THE EFFECT OF PUPIL-PUPIL REINFORCEMENT IN MISMATCHED PAIRS, AND (6) THE ABILITY OF PUPILS TO USE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE INFORMATION DERIVED FROM OBSERVING THE BEHAVIOR OF OTHER PUPILS. THE TWO EXPERIMENTS REPORTED IN PART III WERE (1) THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT REINFORCERS, A COMPARISON ACROSS AGE LEVELS, AND (2) A COMPARISON OF THE REINFORCING EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STIMULI IN A PAIRED-ASSOCIATE LEARNING TASK. RESULTS OF ONE EXPERIMENT SHOWED THAT ALTHOUGH AN ELECTRIC SHOCK REINFORCEMENT FOR INCORRECT RESPONSES CAUSED RATS TO LEARN SIGNIFICANTLY FASTER, CHILDREN DID NOT. FROM THE STUDIES, THE AUTHOR CONCLUDED THAT (1) CHILDREN APPEAR TO BE MUCH MORE CAPABLE OF LEARNING FROM THEIR ERRORS THAN SOME PSYCHOLOGISTS HAVE SUPPOSED THEM TO BE, AND (2) REINFORCING EVENTS SHOULD SUPPLY INFORMATION IN THE CLEAREST, MOST UNAMBIGUOUS FORM. A RELATED REPORT IS ED 003 055. (AL)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Bureau of Educational Research.
Identifiers: N/A