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ERIC Number: ED012721
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1963
Pages: 19
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD AND THE LEARNING PROCESS.
DEUTSCH, MARTIN
THE LOWER-CLASS CHILD COMES TO SCHOOL WITH FEW OF THE SKILLS NECESSARY TO MEET SCHOOL DEMANDS THAT HIS INITIAL FAILURE IS ALMOST INEVITABLE, AND THE SCHOOL EXPERIENCE BECOMES NEGATIVELY RATHER THAN POSITIVELY REINFORCED. THIS POOR PREPARATION IS THE RESULT OF SUCH "MACROSCOPIC" FACTORS AS SUBSTANDARD HOUSING, UNSTABLE FAMILY LIFE, LACK OF OPPORTUNITY FOR INDIVIDUATION, AND SCARCITY OF SUCH OBJECTS AS TOYS, PENCILS, AND BOOKS, WHICH ARE THE TOOLS OF LEARNING IN THE SCHOOL. IT ALSO IS THE RESULT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT. REDUCED "VARIETY OF INPUT" AND STIMULUS DEPRIVATION RELATIVE TO HIS MATURATIONAL CAPACITY MAY LEAVE THE LOWER-CLASS CHILD DEFICIENT IN (1) PERCEPTUAL DISCRIMINATION, (2) ATTENTIONAL MECHANISMS, (3) EXPECTATION OF REWARD FOR COMPLETED TASKS, AND (4) THE ABILITY TO USE ADULTS AS SOURCES OF INFORMATION, ALL OF WHICH ARE SKILLS REQUIRED FOR LEARNING IN SCHOOL. IN THE NONVERBAL SLUM HOME, THE CHILD ALSO MAY FAIL TO ACQUIRE A LANGUAGE-CONCEPT SYSTEM AND FACTUAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HIMSELF EQUAL TO THE MIDDLE-CLASS CHILD'S. RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT EARLY INTERVENTION IN LANGUAGE AREAS, PERHAPS PRECEDED BY AN EMPHASIS ON PERCEPTUAL TRAINING, CAN FACILITATE THE TRANSITION FROM HOME TO SCHOOL. THE SCHOOL SHOULD ALSO DEVISE A PLAN TO INSURE THAT EACH CHILD CAN MEET ITS REQUIREMENTS. THIS ARTICLE WAS PUBLISHED IN "EDUCATION IN DEPRESSED AREAS," A BOOK EDITED BY A.H. PASSOW AND PUBLISHED BY TEACHERS COLLEGE PRESS, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, 525 WEST 120TH STREET, NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10027. (JG)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: N/A