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ERIC Number: ED011526
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1967-Feb-16
Pages: 11
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
THE NATURE AND VALUE OF TEACHER VERBAL FEEDBACK.
ZAHORIK, JOHN A.
TO INVESTIGATE MODES OF VERBAL FEEDBACK EMPLOYED BY TEACHERS AND THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF FEEDBACK ON STUDENTS, TAPE RECORDINGS OF A CURRENT EVENTS DISCUSSION LESSON IN EIGHT 3D-GRADE AND SEVEN 6TH-GRADE CLASSES WERE ANALYZED BY JUDGES. FROM TRANSCRIPTS OF THESE LESSONS, TEACHERS RATED THE ACCEPTABILITY OF PUPIL RESPONSES. FROM SEGMENTS OF THE TRANSCRIPTS, PUPILS RATED THE ADEQUACY AND THE EMOTIONAL EFFECTS ON THEM OF THE TEACHER'S FEEDBACK BEHAVIOR. THROUGH THE USE OF A 25-CATEGORY FEEDBACK INSTRUMENT (13 DIRECT-FEEDBACK, 11 INDIRECT-FEEDBACK, AND ONE MISCELLANEOUS CATEGORY), IT WAS FOUND THAT (1) 175 TYPES OF FEEDBACK WERE USED BY THE TEACHERS 16 OF WHICH WERE USED WITH FREQUENCY AND REGULARITY, (2) THE 16 TYPES WITH HIGH FREQUENCIES OF USE MOSTLY PROVIDED SIMPLE POSITIVE FEEDBACK AND RESPONSE AND LESSON-DEVELOPMENT FEEDBACK, (3) SEVERAL OTHER LESS-USED TYPES (SIMPLE NEGATIVE, ELABORATE, CLUE, EXPLANATION) PROVIDED CONSIDERABLE REINFORCEMENT-MOTIVATION AND CORRECTNESS INFORMATION AND ALSO A GREAT DEAL OF EXPLANATION AND DIRECTION INFORMATION. RESULTS INDICATED THAT (1) IMMEDIATE LEARNING MAY NOT BE A PRIMARY CONCERN OF THE TEACHER, THAT WHAT THE CHILD SAYS AND DOES DURING THE INTERACTIVE SITUATION MAY BE OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE, (2) DIRECT NEGATIVE, ELABORATE, CLUE, AND EXPLANATION FEEDBACK SHOULD BE USED MORE OFTEN, AND (3) TEACHERS SHOULD KNOW WHAT THEY INTEND FEEDBACK TO MEAN AND USE ONLY THOSE MODES THAT CONVEY THE INTENDED MEANING. THIS PAPER WAS PRESENTED AT THE AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION CONVENTION (NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 16-18, 1967). (AW)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: New York (New York)