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ERIC Number: ED010389
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1966-Aug
Pages: 200
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
THE ROLE OF STUDENT RESPONSE IN LEARNING FROM THE NEW EDUCATIONAL MEDIA.
MAY, MARK A.
COMBINATIONS OF OVERT AND COVERT RESPONSE PRACTICES WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE OPTIMAL COMBINATIONS FOR THE LEARNING PROCESS FOR (1) DIFFERENT LEARNING TASKS, (2) STUDENTS OF DIFFERENT ABILITIES, AND (3) DIFFERENT MEDIA OF PRESENTATION. IT WAS OBSERVED THAT PRACTICALLY ALL FORMS OF HUMAN LEARNING INVOLVE SUCH COVERT ACTIVITIES AS OBSERVING, LISTENING, READING, AND COGITATING, BUT DO NOT ALWAYS REQUIRE OVERT FORMS OF BEHAVIOR. THE PROBLEM WAS, THEREFORE, TO DETERMINE THE CONTRIBUTIONS TO LEARNING MADE BY OVERT RESPONDING, CONSIDERING THAT INTERFERENCE WITH COVERT PROCESSES WOULD SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE LEARNING RATE. THE RESEARCH EFFORT WAS EXPLORATORY AND DIVERSE AS DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 SHORT EXPERIMENTS WHICH USED A WIDE VARIETY OF PROGRAMS, INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, SAMPLE POPULATIONS, AND TEST METHODS. FROM THE RESEARCH OF APPROXIMATELY 100 INDIVIDUALS USING A VARIETY OF PROGRAMS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, A SET OF TENTATIVE PROPOSITIONS WAS SET FORTH--(1) IN AMOUNTS LEARNED PER UNIT OF TIME, COVERT RESPONDING IS MORE EFFICIENT THAN COVERT PLUS OVERT, SINCE OVERT RESPONDING ALWAYS REQUIRES ADDITIONAL TIME, (2) WHEN INSTRUCTION IS CONDUCTED IN THREE PHASES OF--(A) OBSERVING, LISTENING, OR STUDYING, (B) TESTING, ANSWERING, OR RECITING, AND (C) CONFIRMATION OR CORRECTION,--OVERT RESPONDING CONTRIBUTES MORE TO LEARNING IN THE SECOND PHASE THAN IT DOES IN EITHER THE FIRST OR THIRD, AND (3) NO ONE RESPONSE MODE IS OPTIMAL IN ALL SITUATIONS. SOME INDIVIDUALS, HOWEVER, ADVOCATE OVERT ANSWERING RESPONSES FOR ALL FORMS OF PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION. (JH)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: No Affiliation.
Identifiers: CONNECTICUT; Connecticut (Hamden); OHIO; Ohio (Cincinnati)