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ERIC Number: ED002701
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1952-Oct
Pages: 26
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
EFFECTS ON LEARNING OF THE PROMINENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL OUTLINES IN INSTRUCTIONAL FILMS.
NORTHROP, DEAN S.
PURPOSES OF THE EXPERIMENT WERE TO DISCOVER WHETHER THE ADDITION OF AUDITORY AND VISUAL OUTLINES TO INSTRUCTIONAL FILMS WOULD INCREASE LEARNING, TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF ADDING OUTLINE MATERIAL TO FILMS WITH DIFFERENT DEGREES OF INTRINSIC ORGANIZATION, TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF INCREASING THE AMOUNT OF DETAIL IN THE OUTLINES, AND TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE SUBJECT'S INTELLIGENCE AFFECTED THE INCREASE OF LEARNING WHEN OUTLINE MATERIAL WAS ADDED. THREE TYPES OF FILM WERE SELECTED--A "DISCRETE ITEM" OR RELATIVELY UNORGANIZED TYPE, A "LOGICALLY DEVELOPED" TYPE, IN WHICH A LOGICAL OR SYSTEMATIC CONTENT DICTATED THE ORGANIZATION, AND A "CHRONOLOGICALLY DEVELOPED" TYPE, WHICH UTILIZED THE DRAMATIC OR STORY FORM OF FILM TREATMENT. THREE VERSIONS OF EACH OF THE THREE TYPES OF FILM WERE PREPARED--A "NO OUTLINE" VERSION, A "MAIN-POINT OUTLINE" VERSIONS, AND A "DETAILED OUTLINE" VERSION. EACH OF THE NINE VERSIONS WAS VIEWED BY AN AUDIENCE OF NAVAL RECRUITS WHO WERE GIVEN INFORMATION TESTS ON THE FILMS IMMEDIATELY AFTER VIEWING. CONTROL GROUPS WHO TOOK THE TESTS ON FILM ESTABLISHED THAT THE ORIGINAL LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUBJECT MATTER IN THE FILMS WAS LOW. THE DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF INTELLIGENCE WERE STUDIED BY DIVIDING EACH OF THE NINE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS INTO ABOVE-AVERAGE AND BELOW-AVERAGE SEGMENTS AND COMPARING MEAN FILM TEST SCORES BETWEEN MATCHED SEGMENTS. FILM LEARNING WAS SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED BY THE ADDITION OF AUDIO AND VISUAL OUTLINE MATERIAL FOR THE FILM OF THE TYPE WHICH WAS NOT INHERENTLY WELL ORGANIZED. THE ADDITION OF OUTLINE MATERIAL TO A DRAMATIC STORY-TYPE FILM TENDED TO DECREASE LEARNING. A MAIN POINT OUTLINE INCREASED LEARNING AS MUCH AS A HIGHLY DETAILED OUTLINE. LESS INTELLIGENT SUBJECTS INCREASED THEIR LEARNING MORE THAN HIGHLY INTELLIGENT SUBJECTS WHEN OUTLINE MATERIAL WAS ADDED. IT WAS SUGGESTED THAT FILM PRODUCERS INCREASE THE POTENTIAL EFFECTIVENESS OF THEIR FILMS BY ADDING ORGANIZATIONAL TITLES AND COMMENTARY ON THE MAIN POINTS OF THE FILM. HOWEVER, THEY SHOULD NOT USE THE TECHNIQUE WITH DRAMATIC FILMS.
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Naval Training Device Center, Orlando, FL.; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.
Identifiers: Florida (Orlando)