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ERIC Number: ED002479
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1964-Dec
Pages: 7
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF READING DIFFICULTIES IN PUERTO RICAN AND NEGRO COMMUNITIES.
COHEN, S. ALAN
READING DISABILITIES ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES--THOSE CAUSED BY PERCEPTUAL FACTORS, THOSE CAUSED BY PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AND THOSE CAUSED BY PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL FACTORS. POOR DEVELOPMENT OF VISUAL PERCEPTION CONSTITUTES A DISPROPORTIONATE PERCENTAGE OF LEARNING DISABILITY AMONG NEGROES AND PUERTO RICANS IN CENTRAL CITIES. EARLY CHILDHOOD PROGRAMS IN VISUAL PERCEPTION DEVELOPMENT SHOULD BE DEVELOPED. THE PSYCHOSOCIAL ENVIRONMENT OF DISADVANTAGED YOUNGSTERS BREEDS LETHARGY AND AGGRESSION. SUCH STUDENTS LACK THE TRAINING THAT MAKES A MIDDLE-CLASS CHILD ENJOY FINISHING A PROJECT AND THAT BUILDS UP FRUSTRATION TOLERANCE. THEY ARE EASILY DEFEATED AND, WITHOUT MIDDLE-CLASS MODELS TO EMULATE, THEIR ASPIRATIONS ARE LOW. SCHOOL REPRESENTS TO THEM A VALUE SYSTEM THAT THREATENS THEM, OR THAT BORES THEM WITH ITS DETACHMENT FROM THEIR REALITY. PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL FACTORS HAVE BECOME APPARENT THROUGH EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. THE RELIABILITY OF STANDARDIZED TESTS IS LOW, BUT SCHOOL READING ABILITY CAN BE MEASURED WITH TESTS DESIGNED SPECIFICALLY FOR THE DISADVANTAGED POPULATION. DISADVANTAGED NEGRO AND PUERTO RICAN CHILDREN HAVE TROUBLE MOVING FROM THE PRINTED WORD TO THE HEARD OR SPOKEN WORD TO THE EXPERIENCE. THEY LACK TRAINING IN RECOGNIZING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES, STRUCTURE AND NO STRUCTURE, ORGANIZATION AND DISORGANIZATION. THEY LACK CONCEPTS OF TIME OR CHRONOLOGY. THEY LACK CONCEPTS FOR WORDS, AND WHEN THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH A CONCEPT, THEY LACK THE WORDS THAT SYMBOLIZE IT. THESE CHILDREN NEED TO BE TAUGHT WHAT THEY HAVE NOT LEARNED TO DO, THEY NEED TO BE TAUGHT THE ALPHABET, TO HEAR SOUNDS IN WORDS, AND TO ASSOCIATE SOUNDS WITH PHONOGRAMS. TEACHERS SHOULD PRESENT, SEQUENTIALLY AND THOROUGHLY, EVERY FINE, SPECIFIC BEHAVIOR NECESSARY FOR CHILDREN TO BE ABLE TO READ.
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: MOBILIZATION FOR YOUTH; NEW YORK; New York (New York)