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ERIC Number: ED001926
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1963-Jun
Pages: 35
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
TOKEN DESEGREGATION AND BEYOND.
MORLAND, J. KENNETH
TOKEN INTEGRATION IN THE SOUTH HAD ESSENTIALLY THE SAME GOAL THAT MASSIVE RESISTANCE HAD, IT TRIED TO PRESERVE THE ALREADY ESTABLISHED SEGREGATION. THOUGH IT MET THE DEMANDS OF THE SUPREME COURT BY ALLOWING SOME INTEGRATION, IT STILL MAINTAINED DE FACTO SEGREGATION. METHODS OF KEEPING SCHOOL INTEGRATION AT A TOKEN LEVEL INCLUDED PUPIL PLACEMENT PLANS, THE CLOSING OF SCHOOLS, TUITION GRANTS AND PROVISIONS ALLOWING COMMUNITIES TO CLOSE SCHOOLS ORDERED TO DESEGREGATE. RESTRICTIVE TRANSFER PROVISIONS OFFERED THE GRADE-A-YEAR OR STAIRSTEP PLAN. THE EXTENT OF INTEGRATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL OF 11 SOUTHERN STATES--ALABAMA, ARKANSAS, FLORIDA, GEORGIA, LOUISIANA, MISSISSIPPI, NORTH AND SOUTH CAROLINA, TENNESSEE, TEXAS, AND VIRGINIA--SHOWED THAT 98 PERCENT OF THE NEGROES IN DESEGREGATED DISTRICTS IN THE RESISTANT STATES WENT TO SEGREGATED, ALL NEGRO SCHOOLS. TOKEN INTEGRATION PLANS WERE UNDER ATTACK IN THE FEDERAL COURTS. PUPIL-PLACEMENT PLANS, THE CLOSING OF SCHOOLS, AND TUITION GRANTS WERE CONDEMNED. GRADE-A-YEAR PLANS WERE SPEEDED UP, AND RESTRICTIVE TRANSFER PROVISIONS WERE REJECTED. THE HEART OF THE SEGREGATION PROBLEM WAS RACISM, THE CONVICTION THAT A PERSON'S RACE IS ALL-IMPORTANT. RACISM PROMOTED SEGREGATION, AND SEGREGATION IN TURN PROMOTED RACISM. RATHER THAN VALUING THE INDIVIDUAL PERSON, RACISTS VALUED THE "AVERAGE" PERSON OF ANY RACE.
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Southern Regional Council, Atlanta, GA.; B'nai B'rith, New York, NY. Anti-Defamation League.
Identifiers: New York (New York)