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ERIC Number: ED001490
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1962
Pages: 25
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
LITERACY IS NOT ENOUGH.
COOPER, DAVID
LEARNING THE BASIC SKILLS OF READING AND WRITING IS NOT SUFFICIENT FOR A HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION. ALL STUDENTS SHOULD COMPREHEND, AND REACT CRITICALLY TO, THE IDEAS AND PROBLEMS ABOUT WHICH THEY READ. STUDENTS WHO WERE CONSIDERED MATURE READERS COULD DISTINGUISH FACT FROM OPINION, DISTINGUISH BETWEEN CONNOTATIVE AND DENOTATIVE LANGUAGE, AND DRAW INFERENCES FROM AND JUDGE THE VALIDITY OF THE IDEAS PRESENTED. THE BEST SOURCES OF MATERIAL TO DEVELOP CRITICAL READING SKILLS WERE JUDGED TO BE NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES WHICH REFLECT THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN FORMING OPINION, CREATING MISUNDERSTANDINGS, AND ACCENTUATING DIFFERENCES. THE FIRST STEP IN TEACHING CRITICAL READING SKILLS STARTS WITH WORD MEANINGS. TO DEVELOP SUCH SKILLS, STUDENTS MAY EACH DESCRIBE THE SAME PHOTOGRAPH AND DISCUSS HOW THEIR DESCRIPTIONS DIFFER FROM ONE ANOTHER. THE SECOND STEP CONNECTS LANGUAGE AND REALITY, REACTING TO WORDS AS SYMBOLS FOR THINGS AND IDEAS. THE THIRD STEP DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN REFERENTIAL AND NONREFERENTIAL, DESCRIPTIVE AND EMOTIVE LANGUAGE. A SUGGESTED ACTIVITY WAS TO INDICATE WHETHER CERTAIN WORDS HAD FAVORABLE OR UNFAVORABLE CONNOTATIONS. THE FOURTH STEP WAS TO RECOGNIZE THE WRITER'S AND THE READER'S PURPOSES. AN ACTIVITY THAT COULD DEVELOP THIS SKILL WOULD BE TO FIND EXAMPLES OF MATERIAL WRITTEN IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGE STYLES FOR DIFFERENT AUDIENCES, BUT WITH ESSENTIALLY THE SAME PURPOSE. THE FIFTH STEP WAS TO DISTINGUISH AMONG FACTS, JUDGMENT, INFERENCES, AND NORMATIVE STATEMENTS. FOR EXAMPLE, A COPY OF A POLITICAL SPEECH COULD BE TALLIED FOR THE NUMBER OF JUDGMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS IT CONTAINS. THE SEVENTH STEP, THE USE OF METAPHORS, COULD BE EMPHASIZED BY WRITING OUT THE IMAGES EVOKED BY METAPHORS AND COMPARING INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES. THE EIGHTH STEP, CRITICAL READING, WAS THE COMPREHENSION OF WHAT WAS READ IN ORDER TO DRAWN CONCLUSIONS.
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: Portland Public Schools, OR.
Identifiers: OREGON; PORTLAND