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ERIC Number: ED001377
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1965
Pages: 8
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT AND NONREINFORCEMENT FOLLOWING SUCCESS AND FAILURE AS A FUNCTION OF THE LEVEL OF ANXIETY OF "S".
HILL, KENNEDY T.
THE INVESTIGATION STUDIED THE FACTORS WHICH DETERMINED THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT AND NONREINFORCEMENT FROM ADULTS ON CHILDREN'S PERFORMANCE. IT HAD BEEN ASSUMED THAT SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT MIGHT HAVE TWO EFFECTS, ONE DERIVED FROM ITS INCENTIVE VALUE AND THE SECOND DERIVED FROM ITS POTENTIALITY FOR REDUCING ANXIETY. THE PRESENT STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO TEST THE ROLE OF ANXIETY DIRECTLY BY ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT AND NONREINFORCEMENT FOLLOWING SUCCESS AND FAILURE FOR CHILDREN OF STABLE LOW AND HIGH LEVELS OF ANXIETY. THE EXPERIMENTAL TASK WAS A MARBLE DROPPING GAME, ESSENTIALLY, THE APPARATUS CONSISTED OF A TABLE WITH TWO BINS, ONE CONTAINING OVER 1,500 MARBLES AND THE OTHER COVERED BY A PLATE WITH SIX HOLES. THE CHILD WAS INSTRUCTED TO PICK UP THE MARBLES FROM THE ONE BIN AND TO PUT THEM IN THE HOLES OF THE PLATE COVERING THE SECOND BIN. DURING THE FIRST MINUTE OF THE TASK, THE BASELINE PERIOD, THE EXPERIMENTER ATTEMPTED TO PLAY AN ATTENTIVE BUT NONRESPONSIVE ROLE. DURING THE REMAINING 6 MINUTES OF THE TASK, THE EXPERIMENTAL PERIOD, THE EXPERIMENTER EITHER MADE A SUPPORTIVE COMMENT SUCH AS "VERY GOOD," OR "THAT'S FINE" AFTER THE FIRST RESPONSE IN EVERY THIRTY SECOND INTERVAL (SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT CONDITIONS) OR REMAINED ATTENTIVE BUT NONRESPONSIVE THROUGHOUT THE EXPERIMENTAL SESSION (NONREINFORCEMENT CONDITION). RESULTS SHOWED THAT PERFORMANCE WAS HIGHER UNDER SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT THAN NONREINFORCEMENT FOR LOW ANXIOUS CHILDREN FOLLOWING SUCCESS, AND THE TWO REINFORCEMENT CONDITIONS DIFFERED MINIMALLY FOR BOTH LOW ANXIOUS SUBJECTS AFTER FAILURE AND THE HIGH ANXIOUS SUBJECTS AFTER SUCCESS. THE PREDICTIONS WERE NOT SUPPORTED, HOWEVER, FOR HIGH ANXIOUS CHILDREN FOLLOWING FAILURE.
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers: MINNESOTA; Minnesota (Minneapolis)